After trying many types of shoes on David, I finally had a revelation- try some shoes where his feet were half barefoot. Like so:
He was not a fan at first (though he didn't wail like he did with the others).
Then he was annoyed.
Then he took a few steps holding on.
Then he let go!
And he didn't even hate them. Now, he didn't love them, as he kept trying to yank them off, but he got a bit more acclimated to them, and was walking around, which is a huge improvement. What a relief that I can actually put him down to play some while we're on vacation next week!